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Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) are solutions to societal problems such as climate change and biodiversity loss that involve working with nature.

  • NBS aim to address environmental, economic and social challenges in sustainable ways.
  • NBS can do this by protecting, restoring or managing natural or modified ecosystems (on land and in the sea).
  • Well designed NBS should sustain people and nature now and in the future.
  • Central to NBS implementation is the full engagement of citizens who are affected most.  

If you require Research and Consultancy Services to plan, implement, mainstream or engage with nature-based solutions then don’t hesitate to contact us. To find out more about our services click the link below.

Selected Publications and Research Projects on Nature-Based Solutions by Dr Andrea Armstrong:


  • Armstrong, A., Bulkeley, H., Tozer, L. & Kotsila, P. (2022) Border troubles: Urban Nature and the Remaking of Public/Private Divides, Urban Geography.
  • Armstrong, A. (2021) Urban Nature-Based Solutions and the COVID-19 Pandemic in Newcastle-Upon-Tyne: Experiences, Lessons and Opportunities, NATURVATION, Durham University, UK.
  • Armstrong, A. (2020) Mainstreaming Nature-Based Solutions: Social Inclusion, NATURVATION, Durham University, UK.


NATURVATION was funded under the H2020 Smart & Sustainable Cities Programme of the European Commission. It involved partners from Universities, Research Institutes, Environmental Agencies, Municipalities and NGOs in Germany, Hungary, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands and the UK, and was supported by an international task force of public and private organisations involved in the development and use of nature-based solutions to urban sustainability challenges. The aim of NATURVATION was to critically explore how and why urban nature came to matter for the governing of environmental challenges, the ways in which urban experimentation with nature was taking place, what it meant to mainstream nature in the city, and how such interventions could lead to transformative change for urban futures.To unlock the potential of NBS for sustainable urban development, NATURVATION took a transdisciplinary, internationally comparative approach.